Facts about these issues can be found in Just Facts’ article, “Do Large National Debts Harm Economies?“ Consumption is conventionally viewed as the preferred welfare indicator, for practical reasons of reliability and because consumption is thought to better capture long-run welfare levels than current income.   * The U. Department of Labor collects data on a subset of consumption called “consumer expenditures.” This includes all direct purchases by households, including those made with the proceeds of government benefits like cash welfare and food stamps.Using 2,000 data points on national debt and economic growth in 20 advanced economies (such as the United States, France, and Japan) from 1800–2009, the authors found that countries with national debts above 90% of GDP averaged 34% less real annual economic growth than when their debts were below 90% of GDP. * In 2013, the Political Economy Research Institute at the University of Massachusetts, Amherst, published a working paper about the economic consequences of government debt.Using data on national debt and economic growth in 20 advanced economies from 1946–2009, the authors found that countries with national debts over 90% of GDP averaged: * The authors of the above-cited papers have engaged in a heated dispute about the results of their respective papers and the effects of government debt on economic growth.For our sample of working men and women between the ages of 26 and 34 in 1990, the average female wage rate was 87.4% of the average male wage rate; but when an index of total compensation is used, the estimate rises to 96.4% of male compensation.It is not possible to produce a reliable quantitative estimate of the aggregate portion of the raw gender wage gap for which the explanatory factors that have been identified account. The rates for other groups were as follows: * Unpaid work—such as caring for children, cooking, and cleaning—increases standards of living, but it is often not recorded in standard economic measures.  Per an academic book published by Stanford University Press: The impact of declining levels of unpaid work over time on all aspects of household living standards deserves more careful consideration.Income allows people to satisfy their needs and pursue many other goals that they deem important to their lives, while wealth makes it possible to sustain these choices over time.Both income and wealth enhance individuals’ freedom to choose the lives that they want to live. * Some common measures of income in the U. are reported by the Congressional Budget Office, Census Bureau, Bureau of Labor Statistics, Bureau of Economic Analysis, Internal Revenue Service, and Federal Reserve.      * Accurate comparisons of income require careful use of economic source data.  Definitions of income vary by source, and the Census Bureau has 17 different measures of income.    Such measures have contrasting strengths and weaknesses, such as these: * Government agencies often group people into brackets according to their income, with the middle group considered as the “middle class.” Median income—“the amount which divides the income distribution into two equal groups, one having incomes above the median, and the other having incomes below the median”—is another common way to define the middle class.   * Unless otherwise stated, all international comparisons of income in this research are provided in “purchasing power parities” or PPPs.
* In 2013, cash wages and salaries accounted for 61% of market income for U. This varied by income group on average as follows: * Gross domestic product (GDP) measures national economic output, or the value of all goods and services that a country produces in a year. Here you may find all of the items that we currently have in stock.You may order by calling us during store hours at 440-774-2131 or by emailing us anytime at [email protected] they still make 77 cents for every dollar a man earns. A woman deserves equal pay for equal work.  [A]fter we controlled for all the factors included in our analysis that we found to affect earnings, college-educated women working full time earned an unexplained 7 percent less than their male peers did one year out of college.Once we control for outside factors the wage gap between men and women shrinks considerably.