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This article explores the cult of Hathor and its relation to the Exodus' Golden Calf incident.
In my attempt to identify the archaeologically attested historical kernels for the Golden Calf, I posed a question.
Many scholars understand that repeated, intense, archaeological sweeps of the Sinai by the Israelis in the 1960's and 70's failed to find _any evidence_ of Moses' Israelites!
The Exodus is understood to have occured in the late Bronze Age (ca. 1200-1000 BCE), and the claim has been made nothing exists of these eras to "link" the Exodus traditions to. It is my understanding that the Exodus traditions, in part, are recalling Late Bronze Age and Iron I events in the Sinai and Arabah. Because these wares are found ONLY in association with Egyptian run mining camps!
It will also be argued that Yahweh was worshipped by the northern kingdom of Israel in the form of a Golden Calf, and that this is an Aramean concept from northern Syria and Mesopotamia.
I understand that Israel's Golden Calf worship reflects a fusion of two traditions, Non-Egyptian Mesopotamian and North Syrian as well as Egyptian and south Sinai.
Let it be made clear at the outset that this is NOT an attempt to "prove the Exodus to be true," this is an attempt to identify, using archaeological findings, the "historical kernels"" underlying the Exodus traditions, elements and motifs.
I personnally do NOT believe the Exodus as presented in the Bible is true.
It will be argued that Israel's worship of the Golden Calf reflects a telescoping, fusion, and re-interpretation or transformation of various concepts and motifs regarding bull calves found in the religious beliefs of Egypt, Canaan, and Mesopotamia.
The myths of each region are investigated in order to identify the "historical kernels," attested by archaeology, which came to be transformed into the Bible's "Golden Calf incident at Mount Sinai" as well as accounting for why the Israelite king, Jeroboam, set up of Golden Calves for his people to worship at Dan and Bethel.