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In this respect, fractal geometry has been a key utility, especially for mosques and palaces.
Other significant features employed as motifs include columns, piers and arches, organized and interwoven with alternating sequences of niches and colonnettes.
The Great Mosque of Kairouan (in Tunisia) is considered the ancestor of all the mosques in the western Islamic world.
Its original marble columns and sculptures were of Roman workmanship brought in from Carthage and other elements resemble Roman form.
The Hagia Sophia in Istanbul also influenced Islamic architecture.
When the Ottomans captured the city from the Byzantines, they converted the basilica to a mosque (now a museum) and incorporated Byzantine architectural elements into their own work (e.g. The Hagia Sophia also served as a model for many Ottoman mosques such as the Shehzade Mosque, the Suleiman Mosque, and the Rüstem Pasha Mosque.
In Moorish architecture, the curvature of the horseshoe arch is much more accentuated.
In the area of art and architecture, the Rise of Islam is seen as a continuous transformation process leading from late Antiquity to the Islamic period.Compared to Western European Francia, period Islamic architecture has preserved to a greater extent the architectural traditions of its preceding cultures.From the eighth to the eleventh century, Islamic architectural styles were influenced by two different ancient traditions: The transition process between late Antiquity, or post-classical, and Islamic architecture is exemplified by archaeologic findings in North Syria and Palestine, the Bilad al-Sham of the Umayyad and Abbasid dynasties.The principal Islamic architectural types for large or public buildings are: the Mosque, the Tomb, the Palace and the Fort.From these four types, the vocabulary of Islamic architecture is derived and used for other buildings such as public baths, fountains and domestic architecture.